Nipple-areola complex reconstruction and tattooing represent the final two stages of breast reconstruction. Nipple-areola complex reconstruction is typically accomplished with the use of local flaps, local flaps with augmentation grafts, or a combination thereof. Regardless of the technique used, however, all nipple-areola complex reconstructions lose a degree of projection over time. Options for secondary reconstruction include the use of local tissue flaps alone or in combination with acellular biological matrices.
After viewing this course, the participant should be able to:
- Understand how to determine nipple-areola complex positioning on the reconstructed breast.
- Understand the multitude of local flap and distant graft options for nipple-areola complex reconstruction.
- Draw at least three fundamental nipple-areola complex reconstruction patterns.
- Understand the forces that are responsible for flattening of the reconstructed papule.
- Understand the current techniques used in secondary nipple-areola complex reconstructions.
Alexander J. Gougoutas, MD; Hakim K. Said; MD; Grace Um, MD; Anne Chapin, PA-C; David W. Mathes, MD
Plastic and Reconstruction Surgery® Editors:
Editor-in-Chief: Rod J. Rohrich, MD
Co-Editor: James M. Stuzin, MD
Section Editor: Donald H. Lalonde, MD
Patient Safety Credit:
Journal Article, Video Publish Date:
3/1/2021Estimated time to complete this course:
Directly provided by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons® (ASPS®)
The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The ASPS designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
This educational activity is intended for plastic surgery practitioners, residents, and other healthcare professionals interested in translating expanded knowledge into practice for the improvement of patient outcomes in plastic and reconstructive surgery.
Dr. Rohrich, MD is the Principal/Co-Principal Investigator of research grants awarded to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, from Medicis, Mentor, and Contura Pharmaceutical. All research funds are provided directly to UT Southwestern. Dr. Stuzin has no relevant financial relationships or affiliations to disclose. Dr. Lalonde is a consultant for ASSI Instruments. None of the authors have any relevant financial relationships or affiliations to disclose. All ASPS staff members managing this activity have no relevant financial relationships or affiliations to disclose. All identified conflicts of interest have been resolved and the educational content thoroughly vetted by ASPS for fair balance, scientific objectivity, and appropriateness of patient care recommendations. The ASPS also requires faculty/authors to disclose when off-label/unapproved uses of a product are discussed in a CME activity or included in related materials.
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